Legislatívne riešenia bytovej krízy počas 1. ČSR a realizácia zákonov v praxi na príklade Bratislavy

The Legislative Solutions to the Housing Crisis During the First Czechoslovak Republic and the Implementation of Laws into Practice; Case Study of Bratislava

After the establishment of the First Czechoslovak Republic the housing for the socially disadvantaged population became a complex problem, especially for the cities with a lot of industry and therefore a large population. Grim living conditions in the cities were a trend even before 1914. After the First World War, however, the housing crisis peaked. Some marginalized groups had no housing available or lived in a totally unsuitable environment. State authorities tried to resolve the housing crisis via numerous legislative measures. The first law concerning building activity was signed as early as 1921, followed by another six years later, and after just three years, there was another law, with the final one in the interwar period being passed in 1936. Laws relating to housing, for example the Tenants Protection Act, the Law on Construction concessions and the Construction Industry Act, were amended during the period of the First Czechoslovak Republic, and the legislation concerning housing was continually reformed. Construction activity increased thanks to the legislation and also partly due to tax benefits, which builders found enticing. From 1930 the state housing policy was to seek mass construction. Despite the efforts of state authorities all the funds were not exhausted, even though some residents could not contribute, even by a small amount, towards the construction or pay the rent for an apartment. Some projects were not finished until the 40's of the 20th century, which was often beyond the control of the state apparatus. The situation was caused by the economic crisis and a failure to comply with deadlines set by law in for the construction of residential buildings.