Cesty sekularizácie v "dlhom" 19. storočí (Úvod)

The Paths of Secularisation in the Long 19th Century. An Introduction

In historiography, there are exceedingly contradictory evaluations of the "long 19th century" with regard to the development of religiosity, the relationship between the state and the churches as well as mutual relations between individual religious communities. Was it the most ecclesiastical century or did the French Revolution began an unstoppable process of retreat of religion from the "theatre" of history? Can we agree with the opinion that the 19th century brought about the onset of the second confessionalisation in Europe? Forcing religion from the public sphere and complicating its relationship with the state triggered more vigorous activity from the religious elite, the innovation of pastoral forms, the use of new media and a relatively successful restoration of ecclesiastical discipline. On the other hand, throughout this "more than one hundred years long century", while shaping the collective as well as personal identity, a relativisation of the confessional principle at the expense of the ethnic or civil state occurred.