Baróni a magnáti v Uhorskom kráľovstve v 16. storočí

Barons and Magnates in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 16th Century

After the battle of Mohács, political elite of the Hungarian kingdom was apart from the prelates formed predominantly by aristocracy. They were represented by about fifty families who in the middle of the century owned 45-50 % of the country's land. Their members would hold the highest administrative and military offices, occupy prominent positions at the Diet, become leaders of the Estates Confederated against the Habsburgs, controll majority of the comes posts in the counties and with the help of their familiares practically govern the whole regions. This is a demonstration that domestic politics was ruled by a relatively small group of aristocrats and prelates.
It is no surprise, that ascent into secular aristocracy of the kingdom became the aspiration and the aim of the many noble family. At that time, there were two ways how to achieve it. First was the traditional method, often practiced from the medieval times - becoming a holder of some of the highest offices in the public administration and the Royal Households and join the "real barons" of the Hungarian kingdom (veri barones regni). These included from the middle of the century the following officials and dignitaries: palatine, iudex curiae regiae, Ban of Dalmatia and Slavonia, tavernicus, comes of the Pressburg county and officials of the Hungarian royal court. The other way was acquisition of the baronial title, the practice started by the Jagellonian kings as early as the beginning of the 16th century, though more frequently the title was awarded only from the 40´s of the 16th century.
The paper gives an overview of about fifty donations of baronial title, awarded from the middle of the 30´s of the 16th century until 1608. Author attempted to classify several groups of careers that could lead to a baronage donation, such as service in the military or in the royal court, influential family relationship, including the father's merits or an intellectual sphere. Last, statistical evaluation of new barons' careers is given.