History of Logic and Methodology of Sciences in Slovakia in the Years 1918 – 1970. An Outline

Náčrt dejín logiky a metodológie vied na Slovensku v rokoch 1918 - 1970

The paper deals with the process of establishment and professionalization of logic and methodology of sciences in Slovakia after 1918. The study is divided into three periods that represent major milestones in the development of logic and methodology of sciences in Slovakia. The first period (1918 -1948) is characterised by the development of logic and methodology of sciences, especially after the start of logic teaching at the Faculty of Arts at the Comenius University. Special attention is paid to the analyses of a paradigmatic change, i.e. the transition from traditional logic to modern formal logic as well as to beginnings of establishment of modern methodology of sciences. Conditions and ideological context that were behind the process are described. Also, the author reports on character of teaching, changes in its content, topics of published works on logic and methodology of sciences, increase in number of studies aimed at modern formal logic and on formation of group of workers who were able to assimilate knowledge of formal logic into methodology of sciences and elaborate on this in their publications.
The second period (1949 – 1962) brought some problems caused by the departure of several experts into Czech lands after 1939 from the political reasons. Others stopped to work and publish on logic and methodology altogether or just changed their research interests. Attention is paid to the process of gradual formation of research potential, to changes in logic teaching and to an increase in number of subjects of study that included logic and methodology of sciences in their curricula. Changes that enabled to establish Department of Logic at Faculty of Arts in 1962 are accounted.
Examination of the last period (1962 – 1970) assesses in particular changes in logic and methodology of sciences teaching, organization and contents of the curriculum, increase in number of taught subjects and in number of institutions at other faculties in Slovakia, where logic and methodology started to be a part of their curricula. The analyses points to an increase in research potential and in quantity and quality of teaching. In the main, it was also an improvement in quality and quantity of publications on logic and methodology of sciences. In conclusion, the author analyses problems that were caused by the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops in 1968, especially its consequences in 1969 and later in the period of normalization. As a result, research potential was weakened and possibilities of development of logic and methodology of sciences were temporarily hindered.