Joseph II.

The Influence of the Elite on the Form of Social Care in Hungary from the Second Half of the 18th Century to the First Half of the 19th Century

Kušniráková, Ingrid

Typically, aid for the poor in Hungary was the responsibility of church representatives and social elites. However, Christian teachings only requested support for people in need in the form of alms, not permanent provisions. The level of care for the poor in the country adhered to this understanding until the second half of the 18th century when social support and health care became the agenda of the state. During the Enlightenment era, Hungarian elites started to address these issues under the guidance of the Emperor. The initiative was influenced, but not regulated by Maria Theresa.

"A Hungarian is as passionate as an Italian… A Slovak is, like a Pole, devoted to liquor…": The National Character of Slovaks and Hungarians in Hungarian and Austrian Statistics up to 1848

Šoltés, Peter

National character (Nationalcharakter, Volkscharakter) as a category of scientific research had been solidly establishing itself in Austrian and Hungarian scientific discussions since the 80s of the 18th century. At the beginning it was the research subject of a complex scientific discipline known as statistics, or politics, (Statistik, Staatskunde). New scientific disciplines were formed during the first half of the 19th century. One of their goals was the examination and description of national character.

The Renewal of Religious Orders in Hungary after the Death of Joseph II. and Coming to Terms with the Consequences of Secularisation

Kušniráková, Ingrid

The decision of Francis II. to restitute the Benedictine, Cistercian and Premonstratensian orders in Hungary in 1802 does not constitute a turn in ecclesiastical politics of the Viennese court, but a continuation of secularisation trends of the last third of the 18th century.

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