This publication is based on a series of lectures given at the Institute of European and International Relations in the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences of Komensky University in Bratislava. The language style used for the lectures has been modified to meet the requirements of a written text. The ten chapters of this publication are relatively short. The idea was to focus, not on an excessive number of details and historical facts but on some crucial features and consequences of colonialism, in particular European attitudes and ideas in the colonial context.